If you mean Book/Chapter/Page system, only possibility is to set "edit classes" to chapter. I didn't try this, but if you create class for each user and set this class for chapter of that page, it should work. If not, it's bug, otherwise I don't see meaning of this field, if rights are not applied to pages too. But your users must be admins.
Second, not tried, just idea. If you are able to edit page on frontend, just add custom field to page with user name and on your page check user rights. But you can't edit page on frontend, you need to create your own solution and replace page edit button with yours one.
It's probably me who asked for feature to set "owner" of record and set that only owner can edit me. But I stoped some time ago, it's not planned.